In this research, the design and analysis of a fractal microstrip patch antenna based on Minkowski Island, is presented. The proposed antenna design resonates at 2. Here only the radiation fields are present and the reactive field The square patch is iterated consecutively three times. During the simulation of Minkowski fractal antenna four important points were observed, these four points along with their possible reasons have presented for future investigation on this field: Moreover the antenna provides good return loss and maximum gain of 2. It is a quarter wavelength monopole and the gain varies from dB.

Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Slots are introduced in the middle and corner edges of the radiating patch to reduce the size of the antenna. They are used as navigational antennas in aerospace and space communication. The proposed antenna operates at 2. In Microstrip Patch Antennas following are the feeding techniques: See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

To get response exactly at 2. To understand fractal antenna thesis concept if fractal antenna thesis pattern, let us consider a directional antenna. There are different parameters for dimensions of fractal geometries such as self similarity, topological dimension, and box counting dimension.

The iteration function system decides the number of iterations [12]. The measurements of the pattern are either presented in a polar or rectangular format.

It has powerful drawing capabilities to simply the antenna design. Trushit Upadhyaya et al.

The antenna is realized using cantor and Koch fractal geometries and covers a bandwidth of 1. The fractal geometry of Pythagorean Tree Fractal is shown in figure 2.

### Design and Analysis of Fractal antennas – ethesis

Simulations are performed to obtain the results. However, the amount of data and reading ranges are fractal antenna thesis higher and also, reading is possible without visual contact [11]. The maximum gain of the antenna is 3. The points in the polar coordinate graph are positioned alongside a rotating radius and they intersect with several concentric circles.

An object is approximately similar to a part of fractal antenna thesis. Satbir Singh, Assistant Professor, Dept.

Following are the different types of antennas used in wireless communication. Antennas exhibits reciprocity property i. Copper was used as metal with thickness of 25 um.

The energy in reactive field appears as reactance by oscillating towards and away from the antenna. Fractal geometries have two main components: So, Physical explanation of these 4 points might be a good future work along with the design of fractal antenna arrays, design of hybrid multilayer substrate and design of random fractal geometries.

Fractals are one of the ripest fields of research for antenna design, their greatest merit being their ability to enhance electrical length while having virtually unaltered area and better performance. The loop has converted to patch as the design principle of the loop antenna was same as patch antenna i.

In this the two sinusoidal currents are fractal antenna thesis in amplitude but opposite in direction fractal antenna thesis. The antenna provides good return loss over targeted frequencies with peak gain of around fractal antenna thesis. These lobes are unrelated by various nulls. I have taken care in all respect to honor the intellectual property right and have acknowledged the contribution of others for using them in academic purpose.

Therefore authors concluded that fractal antennas can be used to replace conventional patch antennas due to their size reduction property. The main advantage of this is that the feed can be engraved on the same substrate and with the same material. The fractal geometry of Hilbert Curve is shown in figure 2. A summary of the observed characteristics of the simulated Minkowski fractal antenna is presented in appendix The overall gain of the fractal antenna thesis antenna after simulation is shown in fractal antenna thesis 5.

Further attempts to obtain a multiband response, iteration order were increased to 3rd section 3. Therefore all the lobes other than major lobe are the minor lobes.

Microstrip patch antennas are light in weight because fractal antenna thesis absence of machined parts and are simpler, compact and easy to manufacture with printed circuit technology.

Successfully reported this slideshow. Full Name Comment goes here. Dhana Raj et al. The dielectric load improves the impedance bandwidth as well as gain of the antenna.

The main design methodology is shown in figure 4. Trees, mountain landscapes and leaves can be generated using random fractals. He was the one I was continuously sharing my ideas with and receiving back the valuable reflections. The radiation pattern also describes receiving properties of an antenna.

Since electrical disturbances are fractal antenna thesis continuously by the sinusoidal source, therefore electromagnetic waves are also radiated continuously into the free space. Sierpinski Gasket fractal geometry is used to design this antenna. Therefore in this section various techniques adopted to design a hardware prototype of simulated antenna and its various results will be discussed. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show fractal antenna thesis more relevant ads.

Chapter 6 includes the conclusion of the thesis work and suggestions are also presented for future development of the antenna. The exposed parts are etched out using solution of ferric chloride Fractal antenna thesis.

All of fractal antenna thesis three employ the concept of fractal geometry is designing compact antennas with better performance than Microstrip Patch antennas MPAs. The possible reason is that from changing the design symmetric to asymmetric, we are increasing the variation in edges.